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Current research strongly supports immediate skin-to-skin mother-baby contact even if the baby is born by Cesarean surgery. The baby is placed on the mother in the operating room or the recovery area.
If the mother is unable to immediately hold the baby a family member can provide skin-to-skin care until the mother is able. The La Leche League suggests early skin-to-skin care following an unexpected surgical rather than vaginal delivery "may help heal any feelings of sadness or disappointment if birth did not go as planned.
Children who are born preterm have difficulty in initiating breast feeds immediately after birth. By convention, such children are often fed on expressed breast milk or other supplementary feeds through tubes or bottles until they develop satisfactory ability to suck breast milk.
Tube feeding, though commonly used, is not supported by scientific evidence as of October Newborn babies typically express demand for feeding every one to three hours 8—12 times in 24 hours for the first two to four weeks.
The amount of breast milk that is produced is timed to meet the infant's needs in that the first milk, colostrum, is concentrated but produced in only very small amounts, gradually increasing in volume to meet the expanding size of the infant's stomach capacity.
According to La Leche League International , "Experienced breastfeeding mothers learn that the sucking patterns and needs of babies vary. While some infants' sucking needs are met primarily during feedings, other babies may need additional sucking at the breast soon after a feeding even though they are not really hungry.
Babies may also nurse when they are lonely, frightened or in pain Comforting and meeting sucking needs at the breast is nature's original design.
Pacifiers dummies, soothers are a substitute for the mother when she cannot be available. Other reasons to pacify a baby primarily at the breast include superior oral-facial development, prolonged lactational amenorrhea , avoidance of nipple confusion , and stimulation of an adequate milk supply to ensure higher rates of breastfeeding success.
During the newborn period, most breastfeeding sessions take from 20 to 45 minutes. Health organizations recommend exclusive breastfeeding for six months following birth.
After solids are introduced at around six months of age, continued breastfeeding is recommended. The AAP recommends that babies be breastfed at least until 12 months, or longer if both the mother and child wish.
The vast majority of mothers can produce enough milk to fully meet the nutritional needs of their baby for six months. Breast milk supply augments in response to the baby's demand for milk, and decreases when milk is allowed to remain in the breasts.
It is usually preventable, unless caused by medical conditions that have been estimated to affect up to five percent of women.
Most US states now have laws that allow a mother to breastfeed her baby anywhere. In hospitals, rooming-in care permits the baby to stay with the mother and simplifies the process.
Some commercial establishments provide breastfeeding rooms, although laws generally specify that mothers may breastfeed anywhere, without requiring a special area.
In the United Kingdom , the Equality Act makes the prevention of a woman breastfeeding in any public place discrimination under the law.
In , newly elected Pope Francis drew worldwide commentary when he encouraged mothers to breastfeed babies in church.
During a papal baptism , he said that mothers "should not stand on ceremony" if their children were hungry. Correct positioning and technique for latching on are necessary to prevent nipple soreness and allow the baby to obtain enough milk.
Babies can successfully latch on to the breast from multiple positions. Each baby may prefer a particular position. The "football" hold places the baby's legs next to the mother's side with the baby facing the mother.
Using the "cradle" or "cross-body" hold, the mother supports the baby's head in the crook of her arm.
The "cross-over" hold is similar to the cradle hold, except that the mother supports the baby's head with the opposite hand.
The mother may choose a reclining position on her back or side with the baby lying next to her. Latching on refers to how the baby fastens onto the breast while feeding.
The rooting reflex is the baby's natural tendency to turn towards the breast with the mouth open wide; mothers sometimes make use of this by gently stroking the baby's cheek or lips with their nipple to induce the baby to move into position for a breastfeeding session.
Infants also use their sense of smell in finding the nipple. Sebaceous glands called Glands of Montgomery located in the areola secrete an oily fluid that lubricates the nipple.
The visible portions of the glands can be seen on the skin's surface as small round bumps. They become more pronounced during pregnancy and it is speculated that the infant is attracted to the odor of the secretions.
In a good latch, a large amount of the areola, in addition to the nipple, is in the baby's mouth. The nipple should be angled towards the roof of the mouth, and the baby's lips should be flanged out.
In this condition a baby can't get a good latch because their tongue is stuck to the bottom of their mouth by a band of tissue and they can't open their mouth wide enough or keep their tongue over the lower gum while sucking.
If an infant is unable to hold their tongue in the correct position they may chew rather than suck, causing both a lack of nutrition for the baby and significant nipple pain for the mother.
If it is determined that the inability to latch on properly is related to ankyloglossia, a simple surgical procedure can correct the condition.
At one time it was thought that massage of the nipples before the birth of the baby would help to toughen them up and thus avoid possible nipple soreness.
It is now known that a good latch is the best prevention of nipple pain. There is also less concern about small, flat, and even "inverted" nipples as it is now believed that a baby can still achieve a good latch with perhaps a little extra effort.
In one type of inverted nipple, the nipple easily becomes erect when stimulated, but in a second type, termed a "true inverted nipple," the nipple shrinks back into the breast when the areola is squeezed.
According to La Leche League, "There is debate about whether pregnant women should be screened for flat or inverted nipples and whether treatments to draw out the nipple should be routinely recommended.
Some experts believe that a baby who is latched on well can draw an inverted nipple far enough back into his mouth to nurse effectively.
Lactation consultants are trained to assist mothers in preventing and solving breastfeeding difficulties such as sore nipples and low milk supply.
They commonly work in hospitals, physician or midwife practices, public health programs, and private practice.
Exclusive and partial breastfeeding are more common among mothers who gave birth in hospitals that employ trained breastfeeding consultants.
However, in some cases, the infant may need additional treatments to keep the condition from progressing into more severe problems.
There are two types of newborn jaundice. Breast milk jaundice occurs in about 1 in babies. It often reaches its peak during the second or third week.
Breast milk jaundice rarely causes any problems, whether it is treated or not. It is usually not a reason to stop nursing.
A different type of jaundice, Breastfeeding jaundice , may occur in the first week of life in more than 1 in 10 breastfed infants.
The cause is thought to be inadequate milk intake, leading to dehydration or low caloric intake. Inadequate intake may be because the mother's milk is taking longer than average to "come in" or because the baby is poorly latched while nursing.
If the baby is properly latching the mother should offer more frequent nursing sessions to increase hydration for the baby and encourage her breasts to produce more milk.
If poor latch is thought to be the problem, a lactation expert should assess and advise. Weaning is the process of replacing breast milk with other foods; the infant is fully weaned after the replacement is complete.
Psychological factors affect the weaning process for both mother and infant, as issues of closeness and separation are very prominent. Unless a medical emergency necessitates abruptly stopping breastfeeding, it is best to gradually cut back on feedings to allow the breasts to adjust to the decreased demands without becoming engorged.
La Leche League advises: Make a bedtime routine not centered around breastfeeding. A good book or two will eventually become more important than a long session at the breast.
If breastfeeding is suddenly stopped a woman's breasts are likely to become engorged with milk. Pumping small amounts to relieve discomfort helps to gradually train the breasts to produce less milk.
There is presently no safe medication to prevent engorgement, but cold compresses and ibuprofen may help to relieve pain and swelling.
Pain should go away in one to five days. If symptoms continue and comfort measures are not helpful a woman should consider the possibility that a blocked milk duct or infection may be present and seek medical intervention.
When weaning is complete the mother's breasts return to their previous size after several menstrual cycles. If the mother was experiencing lactational amenorrhea her periods will return along with the return of her fertility.
When no longer breastfeeding she will need to adjust her diet to avoid weight gain. Almost all medicines pass into breastmilk in small amounts. Some have no effect on the baby and can be used while breastfeeding.
The American Academy of Pediatrics AAP states that "tobacco smoking by mothers is not a contraindication to breastfeeding. With respect to alcohol, the AAP states that when breastfeeding, "moderation is definitely advised" and recommends waiting for 2 hours after drinking before nursing or pumping.
A mother can express produce her milk for storage and later use. Expression occurs with massage or a breast pump. It can be stored in freezer storage bags, containers made specifically for breastmilk, a supplemental nursing system , or a bottle ready for use.
Breast milk may be kept at room temperature for up to six hours, refrigerated for up to eight days or frozen for six to twelve months. Mothers express milk for multiple reasons.
Expressing breast milk can maintain a mother's milk supply when she and her child are apart. A sick baby who is unable to nurse can take expressed milk through a nasogastric tube.
Some babies are unable or unwilling to nurse. Expressed milk is the feeding method of choice for premature babies. This allows mothers who cannot breastfeed to give their baby the benefits of breast milk.
Babies feed differently with artificial nipples than from a breast. With the breast, the infant's tongue massages the milk out rather than sucking, and the nipple does not go as far into the mouth.
Drinking from a bottle takes less effort and the milk may come more rapidly, potentially causing the baby to lose desire for the breast. This is called nursing strike, nipple strike or nipple confusion.
To avoid this, expressed milk can be given by means such as spoons or cups. With good pumping habits, particularly in the first 12 weeks while establishing the milk supply, it is possible to express enough milk to feed the baby indefinitely.
With the improvements in breast pumps, many women exclusively feed expressed milk, expressing milk at work in lactation rooms. Women can leave their infants in the care of others while traveling, while maintaining a supply of breast milk.
It is not only the mother who may breastfeed her child. She may hire another woman to do so a wet nurse , or she may share childcare with another mother cross-nursing.
Both of these were common throughout history. It remains popular in some developing nations , including those in Africa, for more than one woman to breastfeed a child.
Shared breastfeeding is a risk factor for HIV infection in infants. It is possible for a mother to continue breastfeeding an older sibling while also breastfeeding a new baby; this is called tandem nursing.
During the late stages of pregnancy, the milk changes to colostrum. While some children continue to breastfeed even with this change, others may wean.
Most mothers can produce enough milk for tandem nursing, but the new baby should be nursed first for at least the first few days after delivery to ensure that it receives enough colostrum.
Breastfeeding triplets or larger broods is a challenge given babies' varying appetites. Breasts can respond to the demand and produce larger milk quantities; mothers have breastfed triplets successfully.
Induced lactation, also called adoptive lactation , is the process of starting breastfeeding in a woman who did not give birth. In some cultures, breastfeeding an adoptive child creates milk kinship that built community bonds across class and other hierarchal bonds.
Re-lactation is the process of restarting breastfeeding. In developed countries, re-lactation is common after early medical problems are resolved, or because a mother changes her mind about breastfeeding.
Re-lactation is most easily accomplished with a newborn or with a baby that was previously breastfeeding; if the baby was initially bottle-fed, the baby may refuse to suckle.
If the mother has recently stopped breastfeeding, she is more likely to be able to re-establish her milk supply, and more likely to have an adequate supply.
Although some women successfully re-lactate after months-long interruptions, success is higher for shorter interruptions.
Techniques to promote lactation use frequent attempts to breastfeed, extensive skin-to-skin contact with the baby, and frequent, long pumping sessions.
A dropper or syringe without the needle may be used to place milk onto the breast while the baby suckles. The mother should allow the infant to suckle at least ten times during 24 hours, and more times if he or she is interested.
These times can include every two hours, whenever the baby seems interested, longer at each breast, and when the baby is sleepy when he or she might suckle more readily.
In keeping with increasing contact between mother and child, including increasing skin-to-skin contact, grandmothers should pull back and help in other ways.
Later on, grandmothers can again provide more direct care for the infant. These techniques require the mother's commitment over a period of weeks or months.
However, even when lactation is established, the supply may not be large enough to breastfeed exclusively. A supportive social environment improves the likelihood of success.
Parents and other family members should watch the baby's weight gain and urine output to assess nutritional adequacy. A WHO manual for physicians and senior health workers citing a source states: If a baby has stopped breastfeeding, it may take weeks or more before much breastmilk comes.
Extended breastfeeding means breastfeeding after the age of 12 or 24 months, depending on the source. In Western countries such as the United States , Canada , and Great Britain , extended breastfeeding is relatively uncommon and can provoke criticism.
In the United States, In India , mothers commonly breastfeed for 2 to 3 years. Support for breastfeeding is universal among major health and children's organizations.
WHO states, "Breast milk is the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; breastfeeding is also an integral part of the reproductive process with important implications for the health of mothers.
Breastfeeding decreases the risk of a number of diseases in both mothers and babies. A United Nations resolution promoting breast feeding was passed despite opposition form the Trump administration.
What is at stake: It is also bad for the multibillion-dollar global infant formula and dairy business.
Early breastfeeding is associated with fewer nighttime feeding problems. Breastfeeding aids general health, growth and development in the infant.
Infants who are not breastfed are at mildly increased risk of developing acute and chronic diseases, including lower respiratory infection , ear infections , bacteremia , bacterial meningitis , botulism , urinary tract infection and necrotizing enterocolitis.
The average breastfed baby doubles its birth weight in 5—6 months. At one year, breastfed babies tend to be leaner than formula-fed babies, which improves long-run health.
The Davis Area Research on Lactation, Infant Nutrition and Growth DARLING study reported that breastfed and formula-fed groups had similar weight gain during the first 3 months, but the breastfed babies began to drop below the median beginning at 6 to 8 months and were significantly lower weight than the formula-fed group between 6 and 18 months.
Length gain and head circumference values were similar between groups, suggesting that the breastfed babies were leaner.
Breast milk contains several anti-infective factors such as bile salt stimulated lipase protecting against amoebic infections and lactoferrin which binds to iron and inhibits the growth of intestinal bacteria.
Exclusive breastfeeding till six months of age helps to protect an infant from gastrointestinal infections in both developing and industrialized countries.
The risk of death due to diarrhea and other infections increases when babies are either partially breastfed or not breastfed at all. During breastfeeding, approximately 0.
The rest of the body displays some uptake of IgA,  but this amount is relatively small. Maternal vaccinations while breastfeeding is safe for almost all vaccines.
Additionally, the mother's immunity obtained by vaccination against tetanus , diphtheria , whooping cough and influenza can protect the baby from these diseases, and breastfeeding can reduce fever rate after infant immunization.
However, smallpox and yellow fever vaccines increase the risk of infants developing vaccinia and encephalitis. Babies who receive no breast milk are almost six times more likely to die by the age of one month than those who are partially or fully breastfed.
The protective effect of breastfeeding against obesity is consistent, though small, across many studies. In children who are at risk for developing allergic diseases defined as at least one parent or sibling having atopy , atopic syndrome can be prevented or delayed through 4-month exclusive breastfeeding, though these benefits may not persist.
Breastfeeding may reduce the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis NEC. Breastfeeding or introduction of gluten while breastfeeding don't protect against celiac disease among at-risk children.
Breast milk of healthy human mothers who eat gluten -containing foods presents high levels of non-degraded gliadin the main gluten protein.
Early introduction of traces of gluten in babies to potentially induce tolerance doesn't reduce the risk of developing celiac disease.
Delaying the introduction of gluten does not prevent, but is associated with a delayed onset of the disease. Breastfeeding may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease in later life, as indicated by lower cholesterol and C-reactive protein levels in breastfed adult women.
A study suggested that breastfed babies have a better chance of good dental health than formula-fed infants because of the developmental effects of breastfeeding on the oral cavity and airway.
It was thought that with fewer malocclusions , breastfed children may have a reduced need for orthodontic intervention. The report suggested that children with a well rounded, "U-shaped" dental arch , which is found more commonly in breastfed children, may have fewer problems with snoring and sleep apnea in later life.
Breastfeeding duration has been correlated with child maltreatment outcomes, including neglect and sexual abuse. It is unclear whether breastfeeding improves intelligence later in life.
Several studies found no relationship after controlling for confounding factors like maternal intelligence smarter mothers were more likely to breastfeed their babies.
Hormones released during breastfeeding help to strengthen the maternal bond. Exclusive breastfeeding usually delays the return of fertility through lactational amenorrhea , although it does not provide reliable birth control.
Breastfeeding may delay the return to fertility for some women by suppressing ovulation. Mothers may not ovulate , or have regular periods, during the entire lactation period.
The non-ovulating period varies by individual. While breastfeeding soon after birth is believed to increase uterus contraction and reduce bleeding, high quality evidence to support this is lacking.
It is unclear whether breastfeeding causes mothers to lose weight after giving birth. For breastfeeding women, long-term health benefits include reduced risk of breast cancer , ovarian cancer , and endometrial cancer.
A review found it unclear whether breastfeeding affects the risk of postpartum depression. Breastfeeding of babies is associated with a lower chance of developing diabetes mellitus type 1.
The majority of mothers intend to breastfeed at birth. Many factors can disrupt this intent. Research done in the US shows that information about breastfeeding is rarely provided by a women's obstetricians during their prenatal visits and some health professionals incorrectly believe that commercially prepared formula is nutritionally equivalent to breast milk.
Positive social support in essential relationships of new mothers plays a central role in the promotion of breastfeeding outside of the confines of medical centers.
Social support can come in many incarnations, including tangible, affectionate, social interaction, and emotional and informational support.
An increase in these capacities of support has shown to greatly positively effect breastfeeding rates, especially among women with education below a high school level.
Work is the most commonly cited reason for not breastfeeding. Norway ranked first, while the United States came in last.
The United States does not mandate paid maternity leave for any employee however the Family Medical Leave Act FMLA guarantees qualifying mothers up to 12 weeks unpaid leave although the majority of US mothers resume work earlier.
A large study found that women who returned to work at or after 13 weeks after childbirth were more likely to predominantly breastfeed beyond three months.
Breastfeeding can generally be attempted after breast augmentation or reduction surgery,  however prior breast surgery is a risk factor for low milk supply.
A systemic review found that women who have breast implant surgery were less likely to exclusively breast feed, however it was based on only three small studies and the reasons for the correlation were not clear.
The authors suggested that women contemplating augmentation should be provided with information related to the rates of successful breastfeeding as part of informed decision making when contemplating surgery.
Prior breast reduction surgery is strongly associated with an increased probability of low milk supply due to disruption to tissues and nerves.
A review found that women were more likely to have success with breastfeeding with these techniques. Infants that are otherwise healthy uniformly benefit from breastfeeding,  however, extra precautions should be taken or breastfeeding be avoided in circumstances including certain infectious diseases.
A breastfeeding child can become infected with HIV. WHO recommends that national authorities in each country decide which infant feeding practice should be promoted by their maternal and child health services to best avoid HIV transmission from mother to child.
Breastfeeding mothers should inform their healthcare provider about all of the medications they are taking, including herbal products. Nursing mothers may be immunized and may take most over-the-counter drugs and prescription drugs without risk to the baby but certain drugs, including some painkillers and some psychiatric drugs , may pose a risk.
Geared to both healthcare practitioners and nursing mothers, LactMed contains over drug records with information such as potential drug effects and alternate drugs to consider.
Some substances in the mother's food and drink are passed to the baby through breast milk, including mercury found in some carnivorous fish ,  caffeine ,  and bisphenol A.
Undiagnosed maternal celiac disease may cause a short duration of the breastfeeding period. Treatment with the gluten-free diet can increase its duration and restore it to the average value of the healthy women.
Mothers with all types of diabetes mellitus normally use insulin to control their blood sugar, as the safety of other antidiabetic drugs while breastfeeding is unknown.
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome , which is associated with some hormonal differences and obesity, may have greater difficulty with producing a sufficient supply to support exclusive breastfeeding, especially during the first weeks.
Race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status affect choice and duration in the United States. A study found that on average, US women who breastfed had higher levels of education, were older and were more likely to be white.
The rates of breastfeeding in the African-American community remain much lower than any other race, for a variety of reasons.
These include the legacy of Wet nursing during slavery, as well as systemic racism in the American healthcare system that does not offer adequate support to African-American breastfeeding mothers [ citation needed ].
While for other races as socio-economic class raises rates of breastfeeding also go up, for the African-American community breastfeeding rates remain consistently low regardless of socio-economic class.
There are also racial disparities in access to maternity care practices that support breastfeeding. In the US, primarily African-American neighborhoods are more likely to have facilities such as hospitals and female healthcare clinics that do not support breastfeeding, contributing to the low rate of breastfeeding in the African-American community.
Comparing facilities in primarily African American neighborhoods to ones in primarily White neighborhoods, the rates of practices that support or discourage breastfeeding were: Low-income mothers are more likely to have unintended pregnancies.
Especially the combination of powdered formula with unclean water can be very harmful to the health of babies. In the late s, there was a boycott against Nestle due to the great number of baby deaths due to formula.
Michele Barry explains that breastfeeding is most imperative in poverty environments due to the lack of access of clean water for the formula.
Some women feel discomfort when breastfeeding in public. Even given a legal right, some mothers are reluctant to breastfeed,   while others may object to the practice.
The use of infant formula was thought to be a way for western culture to adapt to negative perceptions of breastfeeding.
These emotions occur in both bottle- and breast- feeding mothers, although for different reasons. Bottle feeding mothers may feel that they should be breastfeeding.
Breastfeeding rates in different parts of China vary considerably. Breastfeeding rates in the United Kingdom were the lowest in the world in with only 0.
In the Egyptian , Greek and Roman empires , women usually fed only their own children. This extended over time, particularly in western Europe, where noble women often made use of wet nurses.
Lower-class women breastfed their infants and used a wet nurse only if they were unable to feed their own infant.
Attempts were made in 15th-century Europe to use cow or goat milk, but these attempts were not successful. In the 18th century, flour or cereal mixed with broth were introduced as substitutes for breastfeeding, but this provided inadequate nutrition.
From the s onwards, breastfeeding experienced a revival which continued into the s, though negative attitudes towards the practice were still entrenched in some countries up to s.
In languages around the world, the word for "mother" is something like " mama ". The linguist Roman Jakobson hypothesized that the nasal sound in "mama" comes from the nasal murmur that babies produce when breastfeeding.
In some cultures, people who have been breastfed by the same woman are milk-siblings who are equal in legal and social standing to a consanguineous sibling.
Like the Christian practice of godparenting , milk kinship established a second family that could take responsibility for a child whose biological parents came to harm.
Breastfeeding is less costly than alternatives, but the mother generally must eat more food than she would otherwise.
Breastfeeding reduces health care costs and the cost of caring for sick babies. Parents of breastfed babies are less likely to miss work and lose income because their babies are sick.
It found that in the first year of life there were excess office visits, excess days of hospitalization, and excess prescriptions for these three illnesses per never-breastfed infants compared with infants exclusively breastfed for at least 3 months.
There are controversies and ethical considerations surrounding the means used by public campaigns which attempt to increase breastfeeding rates, relating to pressure put on women, and potential feeling of guilt and shame of women who fail to breastfeed; and social condemnation of women who use formula.
Evidence does not support this assumption. On the contrary, a study on the effects of prenatal breastfeeding counselling found that those who had received such counselling and chosen to formula-feed denied experiencing feelings of guilt.
Women were equally comfortable with their subsequent choices for feeding their infant regardless of whether they had received encouragement to breastfeed.
In , in the UK, a policy statement from the Royal College of Midwives said that women should be supported and not stigmatized, if after being given advice and information, they choose to formula feed.
Social marketing is a marketing approach intended to change people's behavior to benefit both individuals and society. Social marketing in the context of breastfeeding has shown efficacy in media campaigns.
They are concerned that mothers who use formula will stop breastfeeding and become dependent upon substitutes that are unaffordable or less safe.
BFHI was developed as a response to the influence held by formula companies in private and public maternal health care. The initiative has two core tenets: As of , hospitals in the United States hold the "Baby-Friendly" title in all 50 states.
Globally, there are more than 20, "Baby-Friendly" hospitals worldwide in over countries. The first depiction of breastfeeding on television was in the children's program, Sesame Street , in Many mothers have to return to work a short time after their babies have been born.
Working outside of the home and full time work are significantly associated with lower rates of breastfeeding and breastfeeding for a shorter duration of time.
Programs to promote and assist nursing mothers have been found to help maintain breastfeeding. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act which was passed in requires that all nursing mothers be given a non-bathroom space to express milk and a reasonable break time to do so, however as of the majority of women still do not have access to both accommodations.
A study found:. At least three issues may be influencing this suboptimal implementation at workplaces: To address each of these issues, we recommend the following modifications to current law: According to the authors, "No mother should have to choose between breastfeeding her child and earning a paycheck.
Breastfeeding research continues to assess prevalence, HIV transmission, pharmacology, costs, benefits, immunology, contraindications, and comparisons to synthetic breast milk substitutes.
While cognitive behavior therapy may be the treatment of choice, medications are sometimes used. He chaired that department from until September , when he went on public service leave.
He resigned his position at Princeton July 1, Bernanke served as a member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System from to In one of his first speeches as a Governor, entitled "Deflation: As a member of the board of governors of the Federal Reserve System on February 20, , Bernanke gave a speech in which he postulated that we are in a new era called the Great Moderation , where modern macroeconomic policy has decreased the volatility of the business cycle to the point that it should no longer be a central issue in economics.
The appointment was largely viewed as a test run to ascertain if Bernanke could be Bush's pick to succeed Greenspan as Fed chairman the next year.
On February 1, , Bernanke began a fourteen-year term as a member of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors and a four-year term as chairman after having been nominated by President Bush in late He also served as chairman of the Federal Open Market Committee, the System's principal monetary policy making body.
His first months as chairman of the Federal Reserve System were marked by difficulties communicating with the media.
An advocate of more transparent Fed policy and clearer statements than Greenspan had made, he had to back away from his initial idea of stating clearer inflation goals as such statements tended to affect the stock market.
He was sharply criticized for making public statements about Fed direction, which he said was a "lapse in judgment. As the "Great Recession" deepened, Bernanke oversaw some unorthodox measures.
Under his guidance, the Fed lowered its funds interest rate from 5. On August 25, , President Obama announced he would nominate Bernanke to a second term as chairman of the Federal Reserve.
However, Bernanke was confirmed for a second term as chairman on January 28, , by a 70—30 vote of the full Senate,  the narrowest margin, at the time, for any occupant of the position.
The Senate first voted 77—23 to end debate, Bernanke winning more than the 60 approval votes needed to overcome the possibility of a filibuster.
Bernanke was succeeded as Chair of the Federal Reserve by Janet Yellen , the first woman to hold the position. Bernanke has been subjected to criticism concerning the lates financial crisis.
The letter alleged that the extent of the losses at Merrill Lynch were not disclosed to Bank of America by Bernanke and Paulson.
At the meeting, which allegedly took place on December 21, , Paulson told Lewis that he and the board would be replaced if they invoked the MAC clause and additionally not to reveal the extent of the losses to shareholders.
Paulson stated to Cuomo's office that he was directed by Bernanke to threaten Lewis in this manner.
Congressional hearings into these allegations were conducted on June 25, , with Bernanke testifying that he did not bully Ken Lewis.
Under intense questioning by members of Congress, Bernanke said, "I never said anything about firing the board and the management [of Bank of America].
Lewis told the panel that authorities expressed "strong views" but said he would not characterize their stance as improper. According to a January 26, , column in The Huffington Post , a whistleblower has disclosed documents providing " 'troubling details' of Bernanke's role in the AIG bailout".
The columnist says this raises questions as to whether or not the decision to bail out AIG was necessary. Senators from both parties who support Bernanke say his actions averted worse problems and outweigh whatever responsibility he may have for the financial crisis.
According to the Wall Street Journal, the false name was evidence in a class-action lawsuit against the government by shareholders of AIG, which had been given a Fed-backed bailout when it was near collapse.
Quince's emails reads, "We think they are days from failure. They think it is a temporary problem. This disconnect is dangerous. Upon the revelation of the Quince pseudonym during the Starr v.
Bernanke has given several lectures at the London School of Economics on monetary theory and policy. He has written two textbooks: Bernanke is particularly interested in the economic and political causes of the Great Depression , on which he has published numerous academic journal articles.
Before Bernanke's work, the dominant monetarist theory of the Great Depression was Milton Friedman's view that it had been largely caused by the Federal Reserve 's having reduced the money supply and has on several occasions argued that one of the biggest mistakes made during the period was to raise interest rates too early.
I would like to say to Milton and Anna [Schwartz, Friedman's coauthor]: Regarding the Great Depression, you're right. But thanks to you, we won't do it again.
Bernanke has cited Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz in his decision to lower interest rates to zero. Bernanke found that the financial disruptions of —33 reduced the efficiency of the credit allocation process; and that the resulting higher cost and reduced availability of credit acted to depress aggregate demand, identifying an effect he called the financial accelerator.
When faced with a mild downturn, banks are likely to significantly cut back lending and other risky ventures.
This further hurts the economy, creating a vicious cycle and potentially turning a mild recession into a major depression.
In , following coverage of concerns about deflation in the business news, Bernanke gave a speech about the topic.
Control of the money supply implies that the government can always avoid deflation by simply issuing more money.
He said "The U. He referred to a statement made by Milton Friedman about using a " helicopter drop " of money into the economy to fight deflation.
Bernanke's critics have since referred to him as "Helicopter Ben" or to his "helicopter printing press. For example, while Greenspan publicly supported President Clinton's deficit reduction plan and the Bush tax cuts , Bernanke, when questioned about taxation policy, said that it was none of his business, his exclusive remit being monetary policy, and said that fiscal policy and wider society related issues were what politicians were for and got elected for.
In Bernanke coined the term saving glut , the idea that relatively high level of worldwide savings was holding down interest rates and financing the current account deficits of the United States.
Alternative reasons include relatively low worldwide investment coupled with low U. As the recession began to deepen in , many economists urged Bernanke and the rest of the Federal Open Market Committee to lower the federal funds rate below what it had done.
That means the Federal Reserve System has to get ahead of the curve and recognize—as the market already has—that levels of the Federal Funds rate that were neutral when the financial system was working normally are quite contractionary today.
Bernanke's forecasts have been too sunny over the last six months. Back then, he resisted calls for further interest rate increases because he thought the economy might be weakening.
In a speech at the American Economics Association conference in January , Bernanke reflected on his tenure as chairman of the Federal Reserve.
He expressed his hope that economic growth was building momentum and stated that he was confident that the central bank would be able to withdraw its support smoothly.
In an October speech, Bernanke disclosed that he was unsuccessful in efforts to refinance his home. He suggested that lenders "may have gone a little bit too far on mortgage credit conditions".
Griffin, as a senior adviser. In his book, The Courage to Act , Bernanke revealed that he was no longer a Republican, having "lost patience with Republicans' susceptibility to the know-nothing-ism of the far right.
I view myself now as a moderate independent, and I think that's where I'll stay. Bernanke favors reducing the U. During a speech delivered on April 7, , he warned that the U.
His remarks were most likely intended for the federal government's executive and legislative branches,  since entitlement reform is a fiscal exercise that will be accomplished by the Congress and the President   rather than a monetary task falling within the implementation powers of the Federal Reserve.
Bernanke also pointed out that deficit reduction will necessarily consist of either raising taxes, cutting entitlement payments and other government spending , or some combination of both.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Bush Preceded by Edward W. Succeeded by Kevin M. Long-term commitments, dynamic optimization, and the business cycle PDF Ph.
Retrieved 23 October Ben Shalom Bernanke ", George W. Retrieved February 3, The New York Times. The Wall Street Journal.
In Fed We Trust: Crown Business, , p. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Archived from the original on January 20, Archived from the original on April 17, Retrieved April 26, Archived from the original on Speech, Bernanke-Financial Access for Immigrants: The Case of Remittances-April 16, ".
The Federal Reserve Board. Broder August 20, Archived from the original on February 13, Crown Business, , pp. Retrieved January 28, Retrieved January 15, Archived from the original on June 12, Retrieved October 18, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Archived from the original PDF on May 30, Retrieved July 13, Retrieved January 21, Accessed February 2, His children — Joel, born in , and Alyssa, born in — enrolled in public schools, and for six years he served on the school board in Montgomery Township, N.
The Return of Depression Economics and the Crisis of Archived from the original on January 24,
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